the absence of teaching
the presence of play
a culture of trust
Fascinating study analyzing childhood social learning among Aka and Bofi hunter–gatherers in Central Africa.
"Foragers value autonomy and egalitarianism, so parents, older children or other adults are not likely to think and feel that they know what is best or better for a child and are generally unlikely to initiate, direct or intervene in a child's social learning.
Since learning is self-motivated and directed and takes place in intimate and trusting contexts, hunter–gatherer children are generally very confident and self-assured learners."
Social learning among Congo Basin hunter–gatherers
This paper explores childhood social learning among Aka and Bofi hunter–gatherers in Central Africa. Existing literature suggests that hunter–gatherer social learning is primarily vertical (parent-to-child) and that teaching is rare. We use behavioural observations, open-